As of the third quarter of 2017, the total installed capacity of wind power was 157 million kilowatts. By 2020, all 110 thousand typhoons will be insured. According to the estimated operation and maintenance cost of 100-150,000 yuan per fan per year, the market scale of wind power operation and maintenance will reach 110-16.5 billion yuan. In this huge market, what is the current situation of the operation and maintenance market? How to overtake in a curve without a standard market?
Viewpoint 1: operation and maintenance under the haze of quality
At 4:4 p.m. on December 2, 2017, the DF05-07 fan on Line 05 in Yanchi County, Wuzhong City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region collapsed. The tower is broken down from the waist of 1/3, and the blades are scattered over the ground. The unit is seriously damaged.
The accident is located at the DHI water pit wind farm, which is owned by Ningxia silver Wind Power Co., Ltd. The wind farm was officially put into operation in October 31, 2012. There are 96 fans in the field, with a total installed capacity of 99MW.
In such a large volume market, most industry insiders believe that the accident rate is not high. Most units do not have major design defects, and most of the faults are caused by quality control and consistency problems in the manufacturing process.
The main reasons leading to the failure of blade in operation are the quality defects of blade production. The blade fails to produce and inspect strictly according to the technological requirements in the manufacturing process, and the unqualified process flows forward continuously (especially the irregularities in the clamping process). Finally, the defective products are manufactured and installed in succession. Thereafter, in less than two years of operation of wind turbines, the blades can not withstand normal operation load due to their own defects, resulting in continuous outbreaks of quality accidents, and eventually a large number of failures.
The most serious accident of fan is tower inversion. The main cause of tower inversion is fan overspeed. The fan overspeed should have corresponding protection measures to avoid "flying car". The reason for speeding is the focus of attention in the process of operation and maintenance.
Another senior insider disclosed that, according to his investigation and appraisal, a wind power gear box factory in 2015 appeared mass quality problems, the number of units as high as 1000. "I have investigated and counted a group in the industry, which has more than 8,000 units. The loss caused by the shutdown due to the faults of the converter is equivalent to the loss of 1 minute, 7.4% for every kilowatt-hour of power on the Internet in the whole country in that year."
Compared with the quality of equipment, the main causes of major accidents are the installation, operation, maintenance of units and the management responsibility in the manufacturing process of spare parts.
Fortunately, due to the mature technology of wind turbine equipment manufacturers and the improvement of operation and maintenance quality, the operation of domestic wind farms has become better and better. For five years, efforts have been made to improve the quality system monitoring, and the frequency of fan accidents has decreased significantly.
Viewpoint two: low price competition
China's market will always fall into a vicious circle of price war, and the wind power operation and maintenance market cannot be avoided.
Several years ago, the explosive growth of the whole machine market ***d tremendous development space for the operation and maintenance market, but also branded the unstable factors that are difficult to remove. Some enterprises with little capital, small scale and low production level join in the industry competition, follow the trend, mix up with each other, bid price deviates from the normal range, and some even fall into price war. The disorderly competition has caused a serious impact on the market order.
The first half of 2017 report shows that the vicious competition of winning the bid at a low price leads to a continuous decline in the average gross profit level of the industry, resulting in a decline in the overall business scale of the enterprise compared with the same period of last year, and the difficulty of market development and marketing continues to increase.
The reasons for the chaos in the operation and maintenance market lie in two aspects: one is the lack of industry standards for operation and maintenance; the other is the low qualification threshold of the operation and maintenance team.
After wind power generation, the market ***uting bodies are complex, state-owned and private. There are different understandings of the legal system. Some operation and maintenance subjects have long-term planning, but some want to earn some quick money. In addition, bidding is annual, many small businesses shoot a gun, change places, and make money, which is unsustainable.
Wind power maintenance should have the relevant organizations to formulate the entry qualification of operation and maintenance team, maintenance standards of wind power industry, fan periodic inspection (test) standards, equipment health ***uation index system, etc.
Viewpoint three: loss of operation and maintenance talents
Most of China's wind farms are located in remote areas with harsh conditions. Young people have greatly reduced their acceptance of jobs with high intensity, low wages and high risk factors. The instability of operation and maintenance personnel will bring considerable hidden costs. The departure of experienced engineers often results in the generation of talents.
China's wind power market is decentralized, remote, and the working environment is harsh. Many operators leave the site after only 2-3 years of work, with an average working time of only 5 years. The 100 engineers lost nearly 20 a year, and the wastage rate was as high as 20%. However, the increasing installed capacity every year urgently needs a large number of operation and maintenance personnel. At present, there are about 20,000 talents, but there are 40,000 gaps.
For a single wind farm with 25 2.0MW wind turbines installed in a 50,000 kW wind farm, if the average time between faults is not less than 2000 hours, the number of times that emergency treatment is required per year will be less than 109.2 times, that is, the number of times that theoretical normal operation is less than 9.1 times per month, and the actual maintenance time of maintenance personnel is only 9.1 times per month. *5 hours. Contradictionally, due to the occasional maintenance of wind turbines in wind farms, problems can not be predicted in advance. Therefore, personnel can not be downsized to ensure the safety of maintenance work.
However, there are few professional and independent wind power research and training institutions focusing on wind power in domestic universities, and there are relatively few professional wind power operation and maintenance personnel. More operation and maintenance personnel from enterprises